You’ve just started a home vineyard, and you can’t wait for your first clusters of grapes. What are the next steps while you wait for fruit? Pruning is the most important step you can take to ensure healthy vines. Here you’ll learn all about how to prune grape vines.
Why Should You Prune Grape Vines?
It might seem wrong to cut the vines that you’ve worked so hard for, but don’t fear. Pruning back your grapevines correctly will lead to a healthy and fruitful vineyard next season and for years to come.
Pruning grapes is essential to the health of the vine and its fruit. There are three main goals for pruning grapevines:
- Keep the grapevine productive and free from disease. Pruning cuts out disease before it can wreak havoc on your grape plant.
- Encourage growth where you want it for vines that are easy to manage. Pruning grapes will help the trunk, shoots, and vines keep the same shape every year.
- Ensure quality fruit production by removing excess growth, and concentrate energy during the growing season into selected fruiting wood. This will improve air circulation, vine growth, and fruit quality.
Everything You Need to Prune Grapes
Before you prune your grapes, gather all the necessary tools. Home gardeners likely have most of the supplies. However, it’s always good to make sure you everything you need before you start.
- Hand shears: Hand pruners are a must for anyone growing grapes. You’ll use hand shears for just about every task when you prune.
- Orchard loppers: You’ll use these for any tough shoot or part of the vine that hand shears just aren’t strong enough to cut.
- Gardening gloves: You might have these from working around home gardens, but remember that grapes can be quite prickly.
- Curved Saw: Keep a pruning saw handy when you run into a tough branch that needs to be cut off.
- Flagging tape: Distinguish between renewal spurs and side shoots.
Basic Terms of Pruning
If you are new to growing grapes, you’ll want to be familiar with some of the basic terms of how to prune grapes. This terminology will become second nature with time, but this glossary will help as you learn how to prune grape vines.
- Fruitful wood: one year old wood that will produce fruit (canes, shoots, spurs, and buds)
- Arm: branches of the grapevine that are more than two years old and provide support for canes and spurs
- Bud: buds from dormant wood that will grow shoots
- Shoot: the young stems and leaves that grow from buds on dormant wood; they are called canes when dormant in the winter.
- Cane: a dormant shoot.
- Spurs: one year old canes that have been pruned to just a few buds that will produce new shoots next year
- Cordon: an extension of the trunk that once was a cane
- Trellis: the posts, wire, and other structures used to manage and support growth of the grape vine
- Training systems: structures such as a trellis and trellis wire, and positioning of shoots and trunk within the framework so that it is easy to work with and receives optimal sunlight
- Fruiting cane: One year old wood that will produce this season’s fruit
- Dormant season: The winter rest season when the grapevines are not growing but are storing up energy for spring growth; this is when you can remove up to 90 percent of growth from last year and diseased wood
When to Prune Grape Vines
While almost every gardener knows that grape pruning in the dormant season is necessary, summer pruning is important as well. Here you’ll learn exactly how to prune grape vines in the dormant season and in the summer.
How to Prune Grapes in the Dormant Season
Dormant pruning develops the framework of the grapevine and manages new growth. The later you prune in the winter, the later the vine will grow in the spring. However, temperatures below -10 Fahrenheit can cause cold injury to the plant. It’s best to employ a dormant pruning system between February and March.
How to Prune Grapes in the Summer
While dormant pruning is meant to develop the growing framework, summer pruning helps manage the leafy canopy of a mature grapevine. Summer pruning should be done early in the season, around June, so as to make sure the vine receives all the sunlight and nutrients it needs later in the season.
- Remove unproductive vines that are preventing light from reaching fruiting canes.
- Cut side shoots and lower leaves around grape bunches later in the season to ensure sunlight can reach the grapes as they mature.
- Make sure each shoot has 14 to 16 leaves that get plenty of sunlight. Otherwise, the shoot will not have enough energy to ripen the grapes.
Methods for Dormant Pruning
In this section, we’ll walk you through how to prune grapes in the dormant season step by step. The two main methods for pruning grapes are cane pruning and spur pruning. Both are types of dormant pruning.
Before pruning, it’s important to have a structure of some sort to support the grapevines and direct their growth. Most growers use a trellis system with end posts and wires to support the vines.
The directions in this section will assume a trellis system or another similar type of support will already be in place. Now, your goal is to keep every grapevine healthy and fruitful. This section will help you consider which how to prune grape vines using either method.
How to Cane Prune Grapes
To cane prune your grapevines, you’ll first establish a permanent trunk. Each dormant season, you’ll cut back the plant to at least one cane that will grow new shoots. Renewal spurs will grow shoots as the new fruiting canes. A Guyot training system works best with this system, so you’ll tie grape canes to the trellis wires as the lateral arms.
Cane Pruning Timeline
Year One: Growth
- Plant your grapevines and let them grow.
Year Two: Develop the vine’s main trunk
- Allow one main cane to grow in height, and prune it right above a bud. This will be the permanent trunk of the grapevine.
- The top bud will grow lateral arms of the vine framework, and the buds below will shoot out to grow new canes.
Year Three: Lateral canes are renewed
- Prune one or two canes on each side of the trunk over the trellis wire to about 12 buds. These 12 buds will become fruiting canes and grow grapes.
- Choose one cane on each side of the trunk and prune it to two buds as a renewal spur. This will grow canes that can be lateral arms next year.
- All other wood can be removed.
Mature vines: Maintaining the trellis framework
- Prune anything above the top bud of the renewal spurs from the previous year. This will leave a long fruiting cane on either side of the vine.
- The lower bud can be pruned to 12 buds per cane for fruiting, or 2 buds to become next season’s fruiting canes.
- Prune a fruiting cane from last year on either side of the main trunk into two bud renewal spurs.
How to Spur Prune Grapes
When you spur prune grapes, you’ll use the cordon system. Cordons are canes that have become dormant and stayed on the vine for two or three seasons. This means you’ll have cordons three or four years after you plant your grapevines.
The cordons grow new shoots every growing season that you’ll cut back from about 10 buds to a spur with at least one bud. The buds on this spur will grow the fruiting canes for next year. This method of controlling growth is called cordon training. You’ll repeat this process for each vine every dormant season.
Spur Pruning Timeline
Year One: Grow
- Plant your grapevines and let them grow for a year.
Year Two: Select the trunk
- Select a cane to become the main trunk. Allow it to grow to a manageable height that will allow easy grape harvesting.
- Cut the selected cane right above a bud. All the buds below that cut will shoot out as lateral arms.
Year Three: Develop the cordon framework
- Choose a healthy cane on both sides of the main trunk as cordon branches.
- Train the cordons to each side along the trellis wires. The buds on the cordon will become fruiting canes.
Year Four: Choose spurs
- Choose canes on the cordon that are free from disease and in a proper position for canopy management. Prune the canes back to three buds: one at the base and then two above the base bud.
- Remove all other growth, including shoots along the base of the trunk.
Mature Vines: Preserving the cordon system
- Cut the top half of the spur with new growth off to leave one bud above the base of last year’s spur.
- There will be one remaining spur above the base. It will have canes from the last year on it. Cut it down to two buds above the base as the spur for following year.
- Prune away all other growth.
Each year of spur pruning the spur will be further down the cordon. This leaves the buds at risk for cold injury. Furthermore, after about ten years there will be a long barren part of the cordon limiting its fruitfulness. Cordon renewal will let you keep the same vine but protect the quality and quantity of your grape harvest.
- Ensure the roots of the vine are healthy. If the roots are diseased, the entire vine may need to be replaced.
- Allow a cordon shoot near the base of the vine to grow up the framework. Train the cordon laterally along the trellis wires.
- Cut away the old cordon.
Which Pruning Method Works for Different Grape Varieties?
Depending on which grape variety you’ve chosen for your vineyard, either spur or cane pruning might work best. Many varieties work well with either method. Here is a guide for how to prune grapes of every variety.
What Grape Varieties Should Be Cane Pruned?
Cane pruning aggressively prevents disease as it cuts out about 90 percent of old wood. Most table grapes are cane pruned. It can also help a grape variety resist cold injury in a harsh growing climate. Cane prune grape varieties that are grow fruit far from the base of the cane, like these varieties.
- Autumn Seedless
- Seedless Concord
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Moon grapes
- Most white grapes
What Grape Varieties Should Be Spur Pruned?
Spur pruning is the most common method of pruning. It works well for wine grapes such as French hybrids. Spur prune grapes that grow fruit the base of the cane, such as the following varieties.
Now you know all about how to prune grape vines. The best way to learn is by doing, so get out there and prune. Within a few years, it will be second nature.