Cold frame gardening is a popular technique for extending the growing season, allowing gardeners to get a jump on their planting by sheltering vegetables from cold winds and frost.
By using cold frames, gardeners can take advantage of the benefits similar to those provided by greenhouses, extending their garden season by months and enjoying the harvest of fruits, vegetables, and herbs even during the colder months.
In this guide, we’ll walk you through everything you need to know about cold frames so you can determine if they’re the right choice for your garden!
What is Cold Frame Gardening
Cold frame gardening is a technique that allows gardeners to extend the growing season, overwinter tender plants, and start seedlings earlier in the year.
A cold frame is a structure designed to protect plants from cold temperatures and frost, typically consisting of a box with a clear lid and an open bottom. The base of the cold frame can either sit directly on the ground or be sunken into the soil for extra insulation.
Cold frames can be made from various materials, such as wood, metal, or plastic, with the most important feature being the transparent lid. This lid allows sunlight to enter and heat the interior while preventing heat from escaping, creating a warmer microclimate for the plants. Gardeners can adjust the lid to control the temperature and ventilation within the cold frame, ensuring optimal growing conditions for their plants.
This gardening method is particularly useful for growing cold-hardy crops, which can thrive virtually year-round in a well-insulated cold frame. Plants suitable for cold-frame gardening include arugula, broccoli, beets, and chard. Gardeners can also use cold frames to harden off seedlings by gradually exposing them to outdoor temperatures, improving their chances of survival when transplanted into the garden.
The use of cold frames offers a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific needs of various plants, making it an essential tool for successful cool and cold-weather gardening.
Benefits of Cold Frame Gardening
One of the primary benefits of using a cold frame is the ability to extend the gardening season by as much as 60 days, depending on the location. Gardeners can plant earlier in the spring and let a fall crop grow later into the winter.
Cold frames provide insulation for plants during colder months. The structure of a cold frame traps solar energy, offering a warmer environment for the plants inside. The base of the cold frame can either sit on top of the ground or be sunken into the soil a few inches for extra insulation, further protecting the plants from freezing.
Cold frames are a versatile addition to any garden since they can be used to start and harden off seedlings before the normal gardening season begins. This gives gardeners a head start, allowing warm-weather seedlings to be planted long before the last frost date.
Despite their simplicity, cold frames are effective at protecting cold-hardy plants from frost and severe temperatures near the beginning or end of the season. Gardeners should be mindful not to overwater the plants, as the cold frame environment tends to be moist due to limited evaporation.
Incorporating a cold frame into your gardening routine can optimize your garden’s productivity and protect your plants from unfavorable conditions.
Building a Cold Frame
Building a cold frame can be a simple DIY project using readily available materials. In this section, we will discuss how to construct a cold frame using different materials such as wood, old windows, glass, bricks, clear plastic, screws, and hinges.
To build a wooden cold frame, start by acquiring two 2×6-inch cedar boards cut to the desired length and width for your frame. Assemble the frame using screws and attach a back and front piece to form a rectangular box. For better insulation and plant protection, consider using straw bales along the inside walls of the frame. This adds an extra layer of insulation and provides additional support.
For the cover, you can repurpose old windows or glass panes that will allow sunlight to pass through while keeping the cold out. If glass is not available or proves too heavy, using clear plastic sheeting is a lightweight and budget-friendly alternative. Attach the cover using hinges on one side of the frame, allowing for easy access to your plants and the ability to regulate temperature and airflow inside the cold frame.
If you prefer a more durable and stable structure, consider using bricks or cinder blocks to construct the walls of your cold frame. This provides additional insulation and can withstand harsher weather conditions. Simply stack the bricks or blocks to the desired height, ensuring they are level and secure, and then attach the glass or plastic cover with appropriate hardware.
When constructing your cold frame, be mindful of its location. It should be placed in an area with ample sunlight, facing south to maximize heat absorption. Additionally, ensure proper drainage to avoid waterlogging and the possible collapse of the structure.
Choosing Suitable Plants
Selecting the appropriate plants for cold frames is crucial to ensure a successful harvest. A variety of vegetables, herbs, and greens can thrive in a cold-frame environment.
Lettuce and spinach are excellent choices for cold-frame gardening. These vegetables can handle cooler temperatures and will provide a continuous supply of greens during the colder months. Winter lettuces and other salad greens like kale and mustard will also flourish in cold frames, allowing gardeners to enjoy fresh produce even during winter.
Radishes are another suitable option for cold-frame gardens. As a fast-growing vegetable, radishes mature quickly and can be harvested multiple times throughout the season. Similarly, leeks are a cool-season vegetable that can withstand frost, making them a perfect addition to cold-frame gardens.
Broccoli and cabbage are also well-suited for cold-frame cultivation. These hardy vegetables can endure cold temperatures and continue to grow throughout winter, providing nutritious harvests. Carrots, another cool-season vegetable, can thrive in cold frames, and their extended growing season allows for larger, sweeter carrots.
Herbs such as parsley and even some varieties of tomatoes can be grown in cold frames, given adequate temperature regulation. These plants benefit from the extra warmth and protection, making them suitable contenders for cold-frame gardening.
A diverse range of vegetables, lettuces, and greens can be successfully cultivated in cold frames. Cold frame gardening allows gardeners to grow produce during cooler periods and enhance their gardens’ productivity throughout the year.
Active Growth with a Cold Frame
One of the first steps to ensure active growth in a cold frame is selecting an appropriate location. The site should offer full sunlight and shelter from prevailing winds, with the frame facing towards the south.
When it comes to soil preparation, incorporating compost into the soil can provide vital nutrients to promote healthy growth. Spread a layer of compost about 2-3 inches thick over the existing soil and mix it in well before planting.
During the active growth phase, it is crucial to monitor the temperature inside the cold frame. On warm days, the cold frame can become too hot, causing plants to wilt or die. To prevent this, ventilate the cold frame by propping open the lid or removing it entirely during the day, providing much-needed shade. Be sure to close it again in the evening to retain warmth overnight.
Proper watering is essential for successful cold-frame gardening. Cold frames tend to retain moisture, so be cautious not to overwater plants. Watering should be done only when the soil feels dry to the touch, as excessive moisture can lead to rot and discourage growth.
For the maximum benefit of a cold frame, sowing seeds and transplanting young plants within the cold frame can help protect them during their early stages of development. Sow seeds directly into the soil or in trays, depending on the specific plant variety and recommendations.
When transplanting seedlings into the cold frame, gently remove them from their original container and ensure they have a sufficient root structure. Place the plants into pre-dug holes, spaced according to their mature size, and cover the roots with soil. Gently press the soil down around the plants and water them in to help them establish.
As fruits and vegetables in the cold frame begin to ripen, monitor their progress closely. Harvest the produce when it reaches its peak condition, ensuring a bountiful yield from a successful cold-frame gardening season.
Maintaining the Cold Frame
Maintaining a cold frame is crucial to achieving a successful garden during winter, late fall, and early spring. Here are some essential tips to ensure your cold frame stays efficient and functional.
First, it’s essential to regulate moisture and temperature within the cold frame, as it keeps plants safe from ice formation. Monitor the temperature with a thermometer and ventilate the cold frame on sunny days by slightly opening the clear lid. It’s crucial to close the lid before the temperature drops in the late afternoon to retain heat.
Regularly check the soil moisture to avoid waterlogged or dry conditions. Remember that some plants may require more or less watering, depending on their specific needs. Be mindful of the delicate balance between keeping the soil moist and preventing mold or rot.
Snow and ice build-up on the clear lid can obstruct sunlight from reaching the plants inside. To ensure optimal sunlight exposure during winter months, remove any accumulated snow or ice from the lid. Gardeners should also confirm that the cold frame is facing south, maximizing the hours of sunlight exposure.
During autumn and late fall, gardeners can use the cold frame to protect tender perennials and overwinter certain crops. Before temperatures start to dip, insulate the cold frame by adding an extra layer of materials like straw or bubble wrap around the frame. This insulation will help maintain a stable internal temperature even during extreme weather conditions.
It’s important to be diligent with pest monitoring and prevention. Ensure that pests, such as insects and rodents, are not causing damage to plants within the cold frame. Regularly inspect the plants and take necessary precautions to deter any potential pests.
By consistently caring for and maintaining the cold frame, gardeners can successfully make use of these structures to protect and grow various plants throughout the cold seasons.
Frequently Asked Questions
What plants thrive best in a cold frame?
Cold frames are well suited for growing cool-season crops such as lettuce, kale, spinach, and other leafy greens. They can also be used to transplant seedlings of vegetables, including tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants, before moving them to the garden. Hardy herbs, like chives, cilantro, and parsley, can also benefit from cold-frame gardening.
How early can you start planting in a cold frame?
The ideal time to begin planting in a cold frame varies depending on your local climate and the specific plants you wish to grow. However, a general guideline is to start planting in the cold frame 4-6 weeks before the last expected frost date in your area. This allows the plants to establish themselves and become more resistant to cold weather.
What are the main differences between a cold frame and a greenhouse?
Cold frames and greenhouses are both used to extend the growing season, but they differ in structure and purpose. A cold frame is a simple, small, unheated structure with a clear lid that traps sunlight and protects plants from freezing temperatures. Greenhouses, on the other hand, are larger, more complex structures with heating systems that maintain a controlled environment for growing plants year-round.
How can I build my own DIY cold frame?
Building a DIY cold frame requires some basic materials and tools. Start by constructing a sturdy, rectangular box made of wood or metal, measuring at least 12 inches deep by 24-36 inches wide. The back wall should be taller than the front walls for better insulation. Place a clear lid made of glass or plastic on top to allow sunlight to enter and create a warm environment for your plants.
When should I adjust the cold frame planting dates?
It is essential to monitor local weather patterns and adjust the cold frame planting dates accordingly. If your area experiences an unusually warm winter or spring, you may be able to start planting in the cold frame earlier than usual. Conversely, if unseasonably cold temperatures persist, delay planting until conditions improve. Always keep an eye on the weather forecast and make adjustments as needed to ensure the best results for your plants.
Cold frame gardening involves using protective enclosures that create a microclimate for plants, enabling them to grow in less-than-ideal conditions.
Cold frames can be a useful addition to any garden, from urban to rural settings, and can significantly increase the variety and abundance of produce grown.
For more ideas on how to garden in colder weather, check out our post on 10 Winter Gardening Ideas to Do in the Cold Season!
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Matt Cunningham, co-founder of Minneopa Orchards alongside his brother Ryan, is a steward of the land with roots deeply embedded in the farming life. Raised on a farm with both parents imparting their love for agriculture—his father a farmer and his mother a gardener. Matt’s orchard and vineyard journey has blossomed into Minneopa Orchards – dedicated to sharing the joy of growing food with a community of like-minded enthusiasts.